By Valerio Scarani

Quantum physics is usually understand as a unusual and summary thought, which physicists needs to use to be able to make right predictions. yet many fresh experiments have proven that the weirdness of the speculation easily mirrors the weirdness of phenomena: it really is Nature itself, and never simply our descriptions of it that behaves in an fabulous approach. This booklet selects these, between those ordinary quantum phenomena, whose rigorous description calls for neither the formalism, now not an immense history in physics. the 1st a part of the booklet bargains with the phenomenon of single-particle interference, overlaying the ancient questions of wave-particle duality, aim randomness and the boundary among the quantum and the classical international, but in addition the new thought of quantum cryptography. the second one half introduces the fashionable subject matter of entanglement, through featuring two-particle interference phenomena and discussing Bell's inequalities. A concise assessment of the most interpretations of quantum physics is equipped.

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**Example text**

This nineteenth century was a century of positivist optimism – science, and physics in particular, achieved a growing number of successes. The declarations of faith in the omnipotence of science, 18 Let’s step back which one day would be able to answer all of our questions, are multiplying, some people unhesitatingly claim that the solution to all of the problems of knowledge is close at hand. It would, however, be a mistake to believe that the physics of the nineteenth century, which aroused such enthusiasm, was a monolithic knowledge, compact and neatly packaged.

Now that the roundabout is no longer in view, I cannot know by which route each car has entered it. In order to arrive alongside me, as it does now, this car could have taken three possible paths. I have put myself, in relation to the cars, in a situation of indistinguishability. Well then, why is the road network not a quantum interferometer? The answer is a matter of common sense – the indistinguishability of cars is only apparent, it is due to an ignorance that can easily be overcome. In order to obtain the information about the path by which each car entered the roundabout, it would sufﬁce for me to go back a few paces or to ask the driver – neither of these steps would modify what the destination of the car will be.

If we were capable of making more precise measurements, we would not lose the interference. Unhappily, suggests the German physicist, we are not capable. The challenge 40 Authority contradicted is thrown down: will we be capable of it one day, or is nature (of which, let’s not forget, we are a part, as are our measurement devices) designed to keep this issue from being resolved? 2 The Heisenberg mechanism in the laboratory In order to put the Heisenberg mechanism to the test of an experiment, it is necessary to show that we can introduce distinguishability between two paths without modifying the trajectory (position and speed of the particle over time) in any signiﬁcant way.